History of Network Science

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History of Network Science

Leonhard Euler:  Solution of the
Seven Bridges of Königsberg (First paper in the history of graph theory)

Frigyes Karinthy: "Everthing is Different" (one of the fundamental truths about netowrk structure that has driven scientific research in the filed for the last few decades, the last few decades, the concept known today as the "small-world effect", or "six degrees od separation."  From his book, he claims that people were increasingly onnected to each other via their acquaintances, and that the dense web of friendship surrounding each person leads to an interconnected world in which everyone on Earth is at most five acquaintances away from anyone else.  He also aruges that the changing nature of human acquaintance patterns is a consequence of human exploration, of the demolition of geographical boundaries, and of new technologies that allow us to stay in touch even when we are theousands of miles aparts.)

Anatol Rapoport and Ray Solomonoff: the first time introduced a "random graph." It demonstrates one of the most crucial properties of the model and general statistical properties of networks.  They defined a quantity called the weak connectivity (the average component size in the network), which is the expected number of vertices reachable through the network from a randomly chosen vertex. 

Paul Erdős and Alfréd Rényi: the father of the modern theory of random graphs.  They showed that many properties of random graphs emerge not gradually but suddenly, when enough edges are added to the graph.  

Derek de Solla Price: His studies one of the oldest of information networks, the network of citations between scientific papers, in which each vertex represents a paper and a directed edge from one paper to antoerh indicateds that the first paper cites the second in its bibliography.  Networks with poer-law degree distributions are now nown to occur in a number of different settings and are often called "scale-free networks"

Jeffrey Travers and Stanley Milgram: "Small-world effect," Five intermediate acquaintances means that there were six steps along the chain, a result that has passed into popular myth in the pharase "Six degrees od separation."  Their project would have foud the shortest path through the nextwork to the target person.   

Sola Pool and Manfred Kochen: they work provided that inspiration for, among other other, the famous "small-world" experiments conducted in the 1960s.  

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